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Mediation, moderation and conditional process i. The findings of the current study also have implications for measurement.

In particular, our results suggest it may be important not to conflate items that assess normative beliefs about violence with items assessing gender role attitudes or masculinity norms, because doing so may obscure important heterogeneity in the associations between these different constructs and violence behavior. Sociological research suggests that some traditional gender role attitudes, including attitudes related to female labor force and political participation and male participation in domestic tasks, have tended to become more egalitarian over time Cotter et al.

While contemporary research continues to suggest that traditional gender role scripts are pervasive influences on dating behavior Eaton and Rose ; McCauley et al. Measures that specifically assess interpersonal aspects of gender roles including adversarial relationship beliefs e. The current study examined prospective effects across an 18 month period during early adolescence. Future research should examine whether and how the relationships we detected may change across adolescence and young adulthood. In particular, studies suggests that gender role attitudes and normative beliefs about dating violence may undergo developmental changes across adolescence as a result of social experiences across different contexts Crouter et al.

For example, using longitudinal data that spanned ages 10 to 19 years, Crouter et al. In particular, given the salience of peer relationships during early adolescence, more research is needed to ascertain whether and how peer socialization processes e. First, data for the current study were collected over twenty years ago and measures of gender role attitudes and normative beliefs were limited in their assessment of these complex multidimensional theoretical constructs.

Second, all data were self-report and, as such, social desirability bias may have influenced survey responses. Some research suggests that social desirability bias may be addressed through the use of implicit measures e. Third, based on our theoretical framework, the current study focused on male perpetration of physical dating violence. Future research could build on the current study to identify whether and how gender role attitudes and normative beliefs work together to predict different profiles of dating abuse perpetration and victimization involvement among boys and girls and consider other types of abuse e.

Fourth, the study sample was comprised of primarily white adolescents living in predominantly rural areas in the southern United States, where gender role attitudes tend to be more traditional Judge and Livingston, ; Twenge, In addition, the study did not distinguish between heterosexual and same-sex relationships. This is an important issue to consider as emerging research suggests that sexual minority adolescents are at increased risk for dating violence Martin-Storey, and have trouble negotiating socially prescribed gender role attitudes; for example, some sexual minority youth may consciously resist prescribed gender roles whereas others ascribe to them Gillum and DiFulvio The current study examined the interactions between injunctive and descriptive normative beliefs and traditional gender role attitudes in predicting boys dating violence perpetration.

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Our research contributes to the field of dating violence prevention by suggesting that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective intervention approach. By using a longitudinal design, we were able to appropriately address temporality of associations among the constructs and our analytic approach controlled for important covariates, including exposure to interparental violence, strengthening our confidence in the study findings.

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Future longitudinal research should use comprehensive and precise theory-based measures to further investigate interrelations among gender role constructs, normative beliefs and dating violence across adolescence. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Her major research interests are in the etiology and prevention of child and adolescent health risk behaviors. Vangie A. She studies adolescent problem behaviors, including violence between adolescent dating couples, adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use, and adolescent sexual behavior. Phyllis H. Her major research interests include the etiology and prevention of intimate partner violence and teen dating violence. Dennis E. His research examines relations between psychopathology, masculinity, gender-role conformity and aggressive behavior.

Jeffrey E. A medical sociologist by training, he also holds degrees in epidemiology, general sociology, and psychology. He joined CDC in His research focuses on topics spanning the life course, including youth and young adult violence, intimate partner violence and sexual violence, and elder maltreatment.


Amygdala structure and aggressiveness in borderline personality disorder. Denson, t. Gender stereotypes, occupational roles, and beliefs about part-time employees. Hand contractions and body positioning can induce asymmetric frontal activity. Similarly, Campbell and Hausmann found that oxytocin relative to placebo lowered aggression on the PSAP, but only among women who were feeling anxious.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Youth Adolesc. Author manuscript; available in PMC Feb 1. Reidy , PhD, b and Jeffrey E.

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Hall , PhD b. Luz McNaughton Reyes. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author: Luz McNaughton Reyes, Ph. Telephone , Fax , ude.

Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Youth Adolesc. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Introduction Primary prevention of dating violence during adolescence has emerged as a focus of public health injury control efforts due to its prevalence and negative consequences for adolescent health and development Vagi et al. The Current Study The current study addresses the aforementioned limitations in the current literature by providing a longitudinal examination of the synergistic influence of traditional gender role attitudes and normative beliefs about dating violence on male physical dating violence perpetration.

Methods Design and Sample The analyses for this article use data from male participants in a randomized trial evaluating an adolescent dating violence prevention program, Safe Dates Foshee et al. Normative beliefs about dating violence Descriptive norms Descriptive norms were assessed at T1 using two items that measured perceived prevalence of aggression in dating relationships. Injunctive norms Injunctive norms were assessed at T1 using eight items that measured the extent to which adolescents were accepting of male-to-female and female-to-male physical dating violence perpetration e.

Control variables Covariates included as controls included the following variables: Analytic Strategy Data analyses proceeded in several phases. Results Table 1 presents descriptive statistics for focal predictors and outcomes. Table 1 Descriptive Statistics for focal predictors and time one T1 and time two T2 physical dating violence DV perpetration.

T1 Gender role attitudes — 2. T1 Injunctive norms acceptance of DV. T1 Descriptive norms.

T1 Physical DV perpetration. T2 Physical DV perpetration. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Logistic regression models predicting physical dating violence perpetration DVP. Figure 1.

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Model predicted effect of traditional gender role attitudes on physical dating violence perpetration at low and high levels of dating violence DV acceptance injunctive norms Note: Discussion Several dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent male-to-female dating aggression e. Implications The findings of the current study have several implications related to prevention practice, measurement of gender-related constructs, and future research. Conclusion The current study examined the interactions between injunctive and descriptive normative beliefs and traditional gender role attitudes in predicting boys dating violence perpetration.

Footnotes Conflicts of Interest The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Author Contributions HLMR conceived of the study, participated in the theoretical framing, design, measurement, and analytic plan, conducted statistical analysis, and drafted the manuscript; VF designed and led the parent study, participated in the theoretical framing, design, measurement, and analytic plan, and helped draft and revise the manuscript; PHN participated in the theoretical framing, interpretation of the study, and helped draft and revise the manuscript; DR assisted in the interpretation of the study and helped draft and revise the manuscript; JH assisted in the interpretation of the study and helped draft and revise the manuscript.

All authors read and approved the manuscript. References Allison PD. Missing data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc; Changes in gender role attitudes and perceived marital quality. American Sociological Review. Probing interactions in fixed and multilevel regression: Inferential and graphical techniques. Multivariate Behavioral Research. Dating and romantic relationships in adolescence.